United States Constitution
Article II through Article VII
Repealed text is not noted in this version.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States
America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and,
with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may
a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and
to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or
Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under
States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot
persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same
with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted
of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and
transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States,
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates,
Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole
Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such
have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person
Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall
Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes
taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a
for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a
every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the
Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if
should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse
them by Ballot the Vice-President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the
which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same
No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United
the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the
of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who
have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a
Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death,
Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said
Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress
Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability,
the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act
President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability
removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a
which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for
shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the
Oath or Affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability,
protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the
States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the
Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing,
principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have
Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States,
Cases of Impeachment.
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate,
Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he
nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme
and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the
may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think
proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen
the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at
of their next Session.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the
State of the
Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them,
Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall
the Officers of the United States.
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United
shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of,
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme
and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall
their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive
their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their
Continuance in Office.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity,
this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or
shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting
public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime
Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a
Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens
another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between
State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls,
those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have
Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme
have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by
such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have
committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be
Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War
them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No
shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses
same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but
Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture
during the Life of the Person attainted.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts,
and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by
Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings
proved, and the Effect thereof.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and
of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who
flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the
executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up,
removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws
escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation
be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on
of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new
shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State;
State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of
without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules
Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to
any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion;
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the
cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the
Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all
Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the
three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths
thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed
Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first
fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no
without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this
Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be
Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under
Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land;
Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the
Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers,
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or
Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall
required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient
Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the
Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the
Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven
and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of
Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.
Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia
New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman
Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King
Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman
New York - Alexander Hamilton
New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton
Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos
FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris
Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard
Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll
Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.
North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson
South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles
Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin
Attest: William Jackson, Secretary